I have that lens and many filters. If using a screw in ND or CPL it's best to use just one, as if you stack them you will get actual physical vignetting (not light fall-off which is often called "vignetting" but isn't!) with hard dark corners that you cannot recover. One filter is fine at any focal length on that lens.
If you have a 100mm filter system, such as Lee, you must buy the wide angle adapter ring, not the standard one. This has less projection, to avoid hard vignetting. If you have a UV filter, take this off first. The 100mm width of the filters is much less of a problem, though you will probably find you can't use more than two filters (say a 10-stop ND, an ND grad, plus a polariser. I only use my Lee system in this way, so my filter holder is usually set up with just two slots plus the ring for the polariser.
There's no escaping the cost, there are even more expensive filters than Lee! Buying used is an option, but remember they will last a long time if cared for. Though there 100mm Cokin which are less expensive, and cheap ebay knockoffs (best avoided). Of course ND grads have to be slid up/down, so you need the 100x150mm size (which also means you can use just part of the filter as a non-grad!).
Screw-in ND grads are useless unless your scene demands a gradient in the exact centre...!
Polarisers are not great on very wide angle lenses as you tend to get a difference in density across the sky, this is unavoidable as the angle of polarisation changes, and at 16-24mm will be very noticeable so perhaps best avoided, except for controlling water reflections. If you want a bluer sky, do it in software.
To save money, if ND grads are your thing, you can do a lot of that in Lightroom (etc). For very long exposures, a much less expensive screw-in 77mm 10-stop ND filter will work very well, I paid £20 for mine.
Or buy a Lee holder and just one ND grad - to be honest an 0.6 hard grad is my most used filter.
Hope that helps. If you're in the UK try to get to the Photo Show at NEC, lots to see there, try the SRB stand.