Since you say you are using Lightroom (you didn't mention another editor, or Lightroom "plug-ins" that expand LR's functions, let's go back to the beginning:
Lightroom has Develop tools that have been expanded and improved on, assuming you have a relatively recent version (I believe LR 4 and the later versions)...
One place your could experiment in would be the Develop Presets panel, people have contributed a ton of presets achieving a variety of special effects!
But, the more "Basic" approach is to start with the Develop Basic section...there are a lot of good tools in there but you need to experiment, practice, learn, and do it some more! as you scroll down the Develop Module, you will see other types of tools!
But those "at hand" tools work with the entire image, although you can play with things where you can selectively work with color and tonal ranges once you start working with the Tonal Curves and the HSL Panel, plenty of things to play with!
But then, one of the relatively recent tools found in the LR Local Adjustment Brushes. These have given LR some substantial "leaps" in working with stuff that you previously had to go to Photoshop (or a similar app) where you could have multiple layers and "brush in" a variety of effects, things that LR and other Raw processing users had to have these apps on hand and only dream about those crazy capabilities coming into LR...!!
But again, experiment, learn, practice, learn, repeat, repeat, repeat!