What you're describing with Fuji files is specific to Adobe products, this issue doesn't exist in Capture One and several other programs.
Does Capture one have a demo to test?
Workflow wise I know lightroom extremely well.
I installed a 1TB Samsung SSD and even LR 6 has improved in speed now that I have the raw files on the same drive as my OS system.
So all of the painterly photos are Adobe users?
Can you test by taking a photo on a bright sunny day shooting at f/8 to f/11. Uplift the shadows with Capture one. If you do not get the film like cartoon/painterly look I will believe that it is an Adobe issue. My guess is Capture one will do the exact same thing.
Reason I say that is because even in RAW files you can already see this smudged detail look even at f/8 and smaller on trees/shrubs etc...... This is a character I do not complain about.
Sony on the other hand has extremely detailed leaves at f/8 and smaller aperture.