Let's start with the "Sunny 16 Rule."
"S16R" basically says to get a proper exposure of an object in direct sunlight, set your shutter speed to the equivalent of your ISO (ie ISO 100, then set 1/100 sec shutter speed, ISO 400 = 1/500 [nearest equivalent], etc...) and your aperture to f/16.
So, the moon is an object lit by direct sunlight right? See where I'm going with this?
Some subsricbe to what I've seen called the "Moonie 11 Rule" which simply suggests you use f/11 in place of f/16 for a full moon (just open up one stop.)
Unfortunately, because of the extreme contrast ratio between a bright moon and really dark clouds, you'll find that getting both properly exposed in one frame is going to be nearly impossible. So, you could shoot one frame of the moon at f/11-16 then open up to, say, f/8 and shoot again, then f/4 and shoot again then combine good moon with good clouds in a program like photoshop.
Keep pluggin' away .. Keep asking questions .. and always be open to experimentation!