The way this would be shot by a pro would be either HDR for modern stuff or with grad ND filters for the clouds. A matte box would do the trick for placement of the filters. In this case the ND filters would probably be actual wratten filters as opposed to glass. The exposure issue is not new, film had the same issues too. Just a wider exposure latitude. I have a whole host of these filters in various densitys, colors contrast levels etc. Kodak still makes most of them, or you can buy old ones that are out of date. But for this scene I would use a center line neutral grad to darken the sky to get it it within 1/2 stop of the buildings darkest area. With a LF camera you would of course tilt and shift camera to make the buildings square top to bottom. Then you could use the filter either in front of the lens, between the lens and the ground glass / focal plane to get the desired effect. You draw on the groundglass with a grease pencil to register the location of the filter then cut the filters to match the ground glass. Tough to do with digital, but not impossible. Then you can learn about in camera masking, film plane registration and multiple exposures with the matt box. A really good photographer could get it all on one piece of film, with multiple exposures You could also use polaroid pos/neg films to create a layered mask (sound familier). There are about a gazillion ways to shoot this and get the exposure on the money without ever getting close to a computer. But for digital I'd start with stacked filters.