I had a zoom lens with a filter decades ago. When I suddenly turned around while walking thru an ancient castle along the Rhine, the camera swung out, smacking the lens at an angle right into a wall, while on a shoulder strap. Filter was undamaged.
The lens' zoom mechanism was not undamaged...it would no longer operate at the widest angle settings of the zoom. It had to be sent to the manufacturer's repair center to make it work properly again.
The above story illustrates that a filter may TRANSMIT FORCE to the lens, and the accidental breaking of filter glass itself is not necessarily indicative of the 'protective' properties of the filter. Filters, besides modifying light, may serve to provide some protection from wind blown sand at the beach, it may afford some degree of moisture resistance completion in the Canon lens, and it may provide a more easily cleanable surface for removal of salt-laden spray/mist. Any other 'protection' afforded, such as from impact related damage, is purely coincidental.
I have posted links to several other past posts on POTN, in which the hood served as a lever arm to break the lens in HALF, even during a fairly innocuous fall from the front seat of a car to the car floor. Hoods protect from FLARE, they can BOTH cause physical damage or they can prevent physical damage -- just like a filter!