I have done everything with word of mouth and networking so far. The other way of getting people to contact me is by having a website, business cards and flyers made.
I am also trying to get my name out there by donating to local Chinese Auctions and judging local art and photography contests and even getting editors for local newspapers to do a writeup about my company (better than advertising because of the fact that people see that I didn't pay for the article to be there so it must be good if someone decided to write about it right?)
Granted, we shoot mostly 99% weddings so there is an audience and a crowd who needs a service. You are trying to break into a market where dance schools, schools and the other areas who you mentioned probably already have a "regular" and if they are satisfied with their work or are too lazy to find a replacement then it will be tough to break in and take their place.
I do sports portraits and got into it by a roller hockey league needing a photographer, or to replace one who took all the parents money and ran without giving them prints (he got caught BTW), or one to replace a no show and stuff along those lines. The only way I got those were, word of mouth. I took & taught karate before getting a full time job and replaced the regular there because the owner knew me and I tossed him 10% commission for having me there.
So word of mouth, breaking in by offering commission to the owners, staying on top of the situations around those markets and plain luck are what you will need. I called 20 other karate schools and even golf courses and other places around the area and not one person called or emailed me back...