A while ago, Adobe came out with an extension/panel for Photoshop called "Tutorial Builder":
It does not seem like it made an impact on the user community and my guess is that Adobe never really followed up on developing it. In theory, it is interesting. I guess people prefer screencasts or video tutorials where a person is explaining the workflow and walking the viewer through the process?
Probably the easiest way to capture the adjustments made to a specific raw file in LR is to save the XMP sidecar file and distribute it with the raw file, or convert the raw to DNG and then process it - the raw processing instructions get written directly to the DNG. However, for this to be useful, folks would have to make their raw+XMP or DNG files downloadable to the public. As far as sharing the settings on this forum, you could simply copy the relevant parts of the text from the XMP sidecar and paste it into the forum post, even surrounding it with "code" tags:
One of the major workflow shortcomings of LR is the inability to rearrange/reconfigure/undock palettes and panels - if you could, then you could simply arrange them in a preset workspace where they would sit side-by-side or in some other efficient configuration so a single screenshot could capture all of them at once.